Skip to main content

The Perceived Parental Media Mediation Scale (PPMMS)


The Perceived Parental Media Mediation Scale (PPMMS) is a 28-item scale that measures adolescents’ perceptions of the frequency of restrictive and active parental mediation.

The PPMMS also measures their perceptions of different styles of restrictive (autonomysupportive, inconsistent and controlling restriction) and active mediation (autonomysupportive and controlling active mediation).

The PPMMS consists of 2 main scales to measure the frequency of active and restrictive mediation, and 5 follow-up scales to measure the style of mediation. All scales consist of 4 items. The response options for the main items are: (1) never, (2) almost never, (3) sometimes, (4) often, and (5) very often. The response options for the follow-up items are: (1) not true at all, (2) not true, (3) neutral, (4) true, (5) completely true.

The PPMMS has satisfactory psychometric properties. Cronbach alphas for all 4-item subscales are higher than .74. The four-month test-retest reliabilities are > .40. The scale has been validated with general parenting styles (autonomy-supportive, chaotic, and parental rejection), prosocial and antisocial behavior (Valkenburg et al., 2013). The reported main and follow-up items have been explored and confirmed in exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses.

How to Cite

Valkenburg, P. M., Piotrowski, J.T., Hermanns, J., & de Leeuw, R. (2013). Development and Validation of the Perceived Parental mediation Scale: A Self-Determination Perspective. Human Communication Research, 39(4), doi 10.1111/hcre.12010

Administration instructions

Supplemental information